Attributes of cyber conflict in the context of armed conflict – an outline of the problem
More details
Hide details
Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie, Poland
Submission date: 2022-03-21
Final revision date: 2022-04-14
Acceptance date: 2022-04-12
Online publication date: 2022-04-14
Publication date: 2022-04-14
Corresponding author
Monika Szyłkowska   

Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie, Poland
Przegląd Nauk o Obronności 2021;(11):134-154
This article explains the concepts of cyber conflict attributes in relation to the classical attributes of armed conflicts. Problems related to the study of the causes of armed conflicts and wars, forms of their conduct, ending and ways of their resolution. This paper outlines selected definitions of conflict and war that have formed the basis of analysis for the attributes of cyber conflict - in particular the attributes of: nature, forms, sources, complexity, and the difficulty of uniquely identifying the "aggressor" if the attack is not "overt".

statistical analysis, document analysis

The characteristics of a cyber conflict are, in particular: no certain identification of the aggressor, no possibility of an official declaration of war or official defense and retaliation.

The key determinant of defense – should be digital and electromagnetic offensive measures. Security threats and more frequent attacks in broadly defined cyberspace have unquestionably become the challenge of today’s world – consisting of alliances, which the sum of security being the security levels of individual members and their defense capabilities. However only the level of commitment and cooperation can contribute to the achievement of a common goal, defined by the Alliance – including, above all, the elaboration of common, acceptable by all members – „modern” solutions. However, the common defense and deterrence potential equipped with real, though digital, both offensive and defensive resources would allow practical implementation of the challenge for art. 5th North Atlantic Pact in such a strategic way for all areas, which is cyberspace.

Balcerowicz, B. (2002) Peace and non‐peace. Bellona, p. 160.
Kęsoń, T. (1999) Contemporary armed conflicts in the aspect of forecasting military threats of the Republic of Poland – doctoral dissertation. AON – Warsaw, p. 21.
Sun Tzu (1994) The art of war. Przedświt, p. 7, 13.
C. von Clausewitz (1958) About war. Warsaw, p. 15.
Cesarz, Z. (1993) Contemporary political problems in the world. University of Wroclaw, p. 30–31.
Gałganek, A. (1986) Polemology – studies on war and peace. International Affairs, 6, p. 112.
Rotfeld, D. (2010) NATO 2020. Zapewnione bezpieczeństwo. Dynamiczne zaangażowanie („Raport Albright”). Polski Instytut Spraw Międzynarodowych, Warszawa.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top