Methodology of Russian soft and hard power impact in Estonia.
More details
Hide details
Wydział Bezpieczeństwa,Logistyki i Zarządzania, Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie, Poland
Submission date: 2022-12-05
Final revision date: 2023-01-05
Acceptance date: 2023-01-05
Online publication date: 2023-01-17
Publication date: 2023-01-17
Corresponding author
Monika Szyłkowska   

Wydział Bezpieczeństwa,Logistyki i Zarządzania, Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie, Poland
Przegląd Nauk o Obronności 2022;(13):141-154
Soft power elements can be the so-called persuasive means of political influence (culture, propaganda, diplomacy). The Russian Federation, with its historical legacy, by some historians referred to as the "siege complex", still seems to prefer changes in the distribution of power at the global level, while being aware of the benefits of cooperation with the wider West. Nevertheless, the position regarding some former USSR Republics, which it would most likely see directly in its sphere of influence, seems to remain the same, hence the actions taken and the methodology of conduct have their own characteristic features.

In accordance reference to the typology established by Nye - the methodology of the so-called hard influence generally implies the use of military means, compulsory diplomacy and economic sanctions to influence on the behavior or interests of other political bodies (Wilson, 2008, p. 114).

Russia seems to use the hard combination in its own specific way and soft impact. However, the soft impact is primarily based on propaganda activities implementing the clear strategy of the Federation. As argued by Alexander et al. (2005, p. 31): "the theory of the image at the international level shows a clear relationship between the image of another nation and the choice of a strategic policy towards that nation."

In this sense, Russia will apply a shifting strategy in line with the old Latin principle: divide et impera. For this purpose, it will use a combination of soft and hard impact depending on Estonia's internal and international situation.

Geiger T. The Power Game, soft power and the international historian. Soft power and US foreign policy: Theoretical, historical and contemporary perspectives. Ed. I. Parmar, M. Cox. New York: Routledge, 2010. P.86-87.
Nye J.S. Power and foreign policy. Journal of Political Power. 2011. Vol.4. No.1. P.10.
Smirnov, V. (2016). "Foreign Policy of Baltic States Towards Russia." Contemporary Europe-Sovremennaya Evropa(5): 44-54.
Smith, D. J. (1998). "Russia, Estonia and the search for a stable ethno-politics (legal continuity and post-Soviet reality)." Journal of Baltic Studies (1): 3-18.
Wilson E.J., (March 2008). "Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power" (PDF). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 616 (1): 110–124. doi:10.1177/0002716207312618.
Żurawski Vel Grajewski P. (2011), Strategy of the Russian Federation towards the countries of the Baltic Sea, Natolin analysis 4(52)/2011, CEN Warsaw.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top